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Charles Louis Napoléon Bonparte born outside marriage?

You write that Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was born outside marriage.  Why do you think that?

Because he has turned out to have a different haplogroup than two of his mother's husband's brothers.  Napoleone's and Girolamo's haplogroup was found out in 2011.  It turned out to be E1b1b1c (E-M34).  Source is found here.  The "Charles Napoléon" mentioned is great-great-grandson of Girolamo.  (He is number 20 on the list of 21 "Napoléon Bonaparte".)
In 2013 it tured out that Charles Louis Napoléon had haplogroup I (M170).  Source in French is found here.  This is about genetic differences dating tens of millennia into the past.  His paternal grandfather was not Napoleone's father, that is for sure.

Last changed the 3rd of May 2019.
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